- Julius Caesar - Quotes, Death & Facts - Biography
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- Julius Caesar Biography
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- Conqueror of Gaul
In BC he served as governor of the Roman province of Spain. The following year he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul where he stayed for eight years, adding the whole of modern France and Belgium to the Roman empire, and making Rome safe from the possibility of Gallic invasions.
Julius Caesar - Quotes, Death & Facts - Biography
Caesar then returned to Italy, disregarding the authority of the senate and famously crossing the Rubicon river without disbanding his army. In the ensuing civil war Caesar defeated the republican forces. Pompey, their leader, fled to Egypt where he was assassinated. Caesar followed him and became romantically involved with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.
Caesar was now master of Rome and made himself consul and dictator. For more free audio books or to become a volunteer reader, visit LibriVox. Download M4B MB. Reviewer: withinfilm.
Julius Caesar Biography
This "History of Julius Caesar" is concise and factual. Cathy is an excellent reader and her voice makes it even better than it was written. One of my favorite things from Librivox. Caesar pushed Pompey's measures through, helped Crassus' proposals, and got for himself a five-year term as proconsul of Gaul after his consulship was over.
Caesar was safe from prosecution for such actions as long as he held office, but once he became a private citizen again he could be prosecuted by his enemies in the Senate. However, much of the conquest was an act of aggression prompted by personal ambition not unlike the conquests of Alexander the Great.
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Fighting in the summers, he would return to Cisalpine Gaul northern Italy in the winters and manipulate Roman politics through his supporters see this map of Caesar's Gallic campaigns. Meanwhile, Caesar's coalition with Pompey was increasingly strained, especially after Julia died in childbirth in In the following year, Crassus received command of the armies of the East but was defeated and killed by the Parthians.
The Optimates in Rome attempted to cut short Caesar's term as governor of Gaul and made it clear that he would be immediately prosecuted if he returned to Rome as a private citizen Caesar wanted to run for the consulship in absentia so that he could not be prosecuted. Pompey and Caesar were maneuvered into a public split; neither could yield to the other without a loss of honor, dignity, and power.
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Pompey's legions were in Spain, so he and the Senate retreated to Brundisium and from there sailed to the East. Caesar quickly advanced to Rome, set up a rump Senate and had himself declared dictator.
He crossed with only about 20, men, leaving his chief legate, Mark Antony, in Brundisium to try to bring across the rest of the soldiers. After some rather desperate situations for Caesar, the rest of his forces finally landed, though they were greatly outnumbered by Pompey's men.
Conqueror of Gaul
In the final battle, on the plains of Pharsalus, it is estimated that Pompey had 46, men to Caesar's 21, By brilliant generalship, Caesar was victorious, though the toll was great on both sides; Caesar pardoned all Roman citizens who were captured, including Brutus, but Pompey escaped, fleeing to Egypt. October 2, 48 BCE: Caesar, with no more than 4, legionaries, landed in Alexandria; he was presented, to his professed horror, with the head of Pompey, who had been betrayed by the Egyptians.
When Caesar landed, the eunuch Pothinus and the Egyptian general Achillas, acting on behalf of Ptolemy XIII at this time about 12 years old , had recently driven Cleopatra at this time about years old out of Alexandria. Cleopatra had herself smuggled into the palace in Alexandria wrapped in a rug purportedly a gift for Caesar and enlisted his help in her struggle to control the Egyptian throne. Like all the Ptolemies, Cleopatra was of Macedonian Greek descent; she was highly intelligent and well-educated.
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Caesar saw her as a useful ally as well as a captivating female, and he supported her right to the throne. Through the treachery of Pothinus and the hostility of the Egyptian people to the Romans, Achillas and an army of 20, besieged the palace.